Oryzias Latipes Classification Essay

Abstract

Tooth structure is described for adult male, female, and juvenile Oryzias latipes (Temminck & Schlegel), the Medaka. Adult males have enlarged, unicuspid teeth posteriorly on the premaxilla and dentary. Oral teeth are smaller and more numerous in females, in which no tooth is notably larger than the others. Juveniles have numerous small teeth from about 3 mm SL (standard length) onwards. By about 16 mm SL, males begin to develop the large posterior teeth, as well as other secondary sexual characters. Lower and upper pharyngeal teeth of both males and females are fine, and in numerous even rows.

The large, posterior oral teeth of males are fully-ankylosed to the attachment bone, and, hence, are not depressible. In female Medaka, as in the Halfbeak Dermogenys pusillus van Hasselt, the oral teeth have a ring of unmineralized collagen at the base, and are not depressible. Pharyngeal teeth of Medaka have a ring of unmineralized collagen at the base, and a distinct wedge of collagen absent posteriorly, such that the pharyngeal teeth may be depressed.

Bone in adult Medaka is acellular. Incompletely mineralized teeth, acellular bone, a protrus-ible upper oral jaw, and a mobile branchial apparatus with an interhyal bone, form a complex characteristic of advanced teleosts. The Medaka differs in several ways from the model advanced teleost: absence of an interhyal bone, ascending and articular processes of the premaxilla, and the rostral cartilage, as well as presence of cartilaginous symphyses between the dentaries and premaxillae, all contribute to the fixed or nonprotrusible jaws.

Reduction in the premaxilla is a derived character within beloniform fishes for which an enlarged, beaked outer jaw is considered plesiomorphic.

Abstract

The present study develops further our previous study of in vivo monitoring at the molecular level of the embryonic development in Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and NIR imaging. NIR spectra were measured nondestructively for three major parts of fertilized medaka eggs (the embryonic body, oil droplets, and egg yolk) from the first day after fertilization to the day just before hatching (JBH). Changes in the contents of chemical components such as proteins, water, and lipids were monitored in situ during embryonic development. A marked change in the relative content of weakly hydrogen-bonded water was observed in the egg yolk JBH. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out using the NIR spectra data of the egg yolk and embryo on the fifth day after fertilization. The PCA clearly separates the egg yolk data from the embryo body parts. Principal component PC1 and PC2 loading plots suggest that the hydrogen bonding structure of water in the egg yolk is considerably different to those of the other parts and the fraction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water in the egg yolk is smaller than that in the embryonic body. NIR images developed from the intensities of peaks of second derivative spectra owing to water and proteins show their different distribution patterns. Images of the ratio of strongly and weakly hydrogen-bonded water confirmed that oil droplets and embryonic body parts have higher and lower ratios, respectively, of strongly hydrogen-bonded water than do the other parts. The images developed from the intensity of the peaks at 4864 and 4616 cm−1 related to the proteins indicated that the egg yolk contains a higher concentration of protein than do the other parts. The peaks at 5756 and 4530 cm−1 caused by the protein secondary structures of α-helix and β-sheet showed the configuration of the egg cell membrane. The present study might lead to new understanding at the molecular level regarding the growth of fertilized eggs and provides a new tool to visualize egg development in a nondestructive manner. View Full-Text

Keywords: NIR spectroscopy and imaging; in vivo monitoring; fertilized eggNIR spectroscopy and imaging; in vivo monitoring; fertilized egg

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