Argumentative Essay: We Must Eliminate Animal Testing
- Length: 613 words (1.8 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
The practice of using animals for testing has been a controversial issue over the past thirty years. Animal testing is a morally debated practice. The question is whether animal testing is morally right or wrong. This paper will present both sides of this issue as well as my own opinion.
Approximately two to four million animals have been used in safety tests. Safety tests are conducted with a wide range of chemicals and products, including drugs, vaccines, cosmetics, household cleaners, and packing materials. This raises issues such as the ethics and humaneness of deliberately poisoning animals, thus harming them, for the sake of marketing a new cosmetic or household product.
The Humane Society of the United States promotes research methods that can potentially replace, reduce, or refine animal use so that animals experience less suffering. An opinion poll was taken by the HSUS on September 23, 2001 on pain and distress in research. The findings were that 62% of people would approve of testing if little or no pain was experienced by the animals, while 75% disapprove when severe pain is experienced.
There is a moral blind spot in the treatment of animals that enable us to justify the cruelties for the perceived benefits of humans. Animals are living things. They have lungs which breathe, hearts which beat, and blood that flows. In fact, animals sense of smell, sight, and sound is much more acute than our own. Therefore, we can assume that their sensitivity to pain is at least equal to ours. According to Hippocrates, “The soul is the same in all living creatures, although the body of each is different.” This can go with the Duty Theory that states that every individual gets treated the same. The intentions of animal testing is not to harm the animals, but that is exactly what it does.
In opposition of Hippocrates, others believe animals cannot be entitled to rights because they have no understanding and that testing on them is a necessity. A treatment to prevent scarring and loss of vision after glaucoma surgery will soon be tried on patients. This was made possible using rabbits. Following successful studies on mice and rats, a vaccine for malaria is now being tested on people.
There is a wealth of evidence showing that animal “models” are not accurate and cannot be relied upon for safety testing and disease research. Scientists and doctors recognize that while animals are biologically very similar to human beings, they are not identical.
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Gun Control Using Animals Wide Range Living Creatures Research Methods Controversial Issue Hippocrates Packing Animal Testing
It is unlikely that most of the millions of lab animals that are killed yearly will have contributed to saving human life. I believe that animal testing is unethical unless it is used for good reasons, such as finding cures for diseases. For cosmetics and household products, animal testing is morally wrong.
Peter Singer stated, “to be opposed to what is going on now it is not necessary to insist that all animal experiments stop immediately. All we need to say is that experiments serving no direct and urgent purpose should stop immediately, and in the remaining fields of research, we should, whenever possible, seek to replace experiments that involve animals with alternative methods that do not.” There are now valuable nonanimal research methods available such as cell and tissue cultures and computer modeling. Animals may not have a voice, but they do feel physical and mental pain. Experiments on animals are not conducted for fun and serious efforts are being made to eliminate animal testing.
Animal Aid. Close up on Ethics. http://www.animalaid.org 9/24/14
Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. Pimlico, 1995.
The Humane Society of the United States. Animal Testing. http://www.hsus.org/ace. 9/24/14
What Is an Argumentative Essay?
An argumentative essay is a type of essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue. Argumentative essay outline is usually structured according to the five-paragraph essay with an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion.
50 MOST POPULAR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS
If you are looking for argumentative essay examples here is a great one below. Read and use it while writing your argumentative essay.
Argumentative Essay Example on Doublethink
The Importance of Doublethink to the Party’s control of Oceania
One of the hallmarks of the dystopic society of 1984 is the fact that the leaders have been able to achieve a level of surveillance that is not possible in the real world and certainly was not possible in the 1940’s. However, even Winston Smith himself notes that people are at least partly free in their own minds. In the world of 1984, the government cannot yet control people telepathically through technological means.
The problem is that their society really does depend on being able to police people’s behaviors and thoughts on every level, which introduces an instability. A society that depends entirely on mass surveillance is going to have a hard time staying alive. Doublethink more or less does allow the government to control people through their thoughts without the requisite technology or nearly magical abilities. With doublethink, the leaders get the citizens to police themselves, which saves resources and is fundamentally more effective.
The Nature of Doublethink and the Preliminary Destruction of Rebellions
In Orwell’s world, doublethink is characterized by holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously. It requires people to think on multiple levels at once. All of the citizens of Orwell’s world seem capable of this. They aren’t ordered to engage in doublethink: they naturally police their own thoughts. As such, they are able to stop thoughts that are contrary to the interests of the Party before those thoughts even form.
The Party is, therefore, able to crush rebellions long before they have started and with almost no resources. The Party doesn’t even have to openly crush rebellions since potential rebels destroy their own rebellions in their thoughts.
A Compensation for Believing in Lies
The people in Orwell’s world are so obsessed with holding the right beliefs according to the ideology of their government that they have to maintain those beliefs even when they contradict basic reality. When societies in real life have done this, the results have been disastrous. The Soviet Union, for instance, tried to do agriculture based on abstract socialist principles, which helped cause massive starvation.
The Party clearly has a similar problem, since they’re willing to endorse the idea that basic astronomy is wrong and that similar scientific principles are incorrect. However, because of the principle of doublethink, the Party is able to disbelieve in these principles while believing in them whenever they’re essential. They can stop themselves from falling into the traps of the ideologues of the past as a result. Essentially, they can have all of the benefits of science and reason without allowing science or reason to threaten their ideology. Their society would probably collapse otherwise.
Doublethink and the Destruction of Thoughts
Winston Smith notes that it is difficult for him to concentrate on one subject for very long by the end of the book after his mind has been destroyed through torture. The Party requires people to believe so many blatant lies in order to exist that it more or less has to destroy people intellectually. They do this through Newspeak, which is designed to limit people’s ability to organize their thoughts. Doublethink is just another part of that picture.
People who are constantly holding these two contradictory ideas at once are going to find it harder and harder to think critically or to even think at all. They will become almost intellectually incapable of resisting as a result. Doublethink and Newspeak work to stunt people and render them incapable of even conceiving of resistance.
Doublethink does what the Party could not do technologically: it destroys people’s ability to think, it causes people to use reason only when reason is both essential and safe, and it creates a layer of protection from all rebellions.
The Party requires people to believe in its ideology in order to function, and its ideology is fundamentally absurd. The Party also requires massive surveillance in order to function, and it isn’t possible for them to police the thoughts of citizens technologically. By getting people to think in a way that causes them to swallow everything that the Party says without any unintended consequences, the Party has created a population that is perfectly loyal to them. They’ve also created a version of loyalty that is more or less self-sustaining and that won’t harm them in any other way.
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