Scratching beyond the Surface: Hip Hop and Its Art of Persuasion
Samuel A. Reed III
Beeber Middle School
Overview Rationale Objectives Strategies Classroom Activities / Lesson Plans Annotated Bibliography/ Resources Appendices
Stay true, and they'll come to you
- Russell Simmons
Like sex, hip-hop sells.... Hip-hop is now applied to virtually every product in the marketplace, from fashion items to Sprite soda, McDonald's burgers and computers.
- Lydia Yee and Franklin Sirmans
Today hip-hop is a billion dollar industry; innumerable products and practices are marketed and labeled as hip-hop. It influences young people in countless ways--not only in their music preference, but literature, fashion, dance as well as visual arts. (Yee and Sirmans 9) According to a Forbes Magazine article, "The Business of Hip-Hop: A Billion Dollar Industry" the estimates are that 45 million hip-hop consumers exist between the ages of 13 and 34(qtd. in Kitwana 82). My students find the statistics that reflect that 70% of the buyers of rap music are white hard to believe. A Philadelphia-based market research company, Motivational Educational Entertainment Productions reports in "Reaching the Hip Hop Generation" that African American youth are the most influential trendsetters in our global economy. If my students can begin to understand how hip-hop sells and how its power of persuasion impacts their consumer and lifestyle choices, it should improve their media literacy, traditional literacy and critical thinking skills. This unit on hip-hop and its art of persuasion is intended to align with the School District Philadelphia's 6th grade core curricula. Through this curriculum unit students will conduct inquiry on persuasion and how it operates in their hip-hop world view. Persuasive essay writing will be a core skill for students to master. To lead students to master persuasive essays this unit will use hip-hop lyrics, fashion, jingles, and other art forms.
Rap is something you do; hip-hop is something you live. -KRS-One.
Hip-Hop Inquiry and Media Literacy
Why use hip-hop to anchor an inquiry on persuasion? Hip-hop culture is ever present in most of my students' lives. The overarching question is how does a teacher integrate literacy and social studies content to explore hip-hop? According to Tshombe Walker, in his essay, "Hip-Hop and Rap Music Industry", the most serious issue facing the hip-hop community is that of cultural and economic exploitation. Providing students a lens to explore hip-hop's persuasive techniques and its underlying economic modalities is critical to improving students' media literacy skills and provide methods for students to explore issues of social justice within a capitalist society.
I teach 6th grade reading, writing and social studies at Beeber Middle School, located in the West Academic Area of the School District of Philadelphia. The pupil population is over 600. The student body is 95% African American and less than 1% percent is Caucasian. The balance of other students is bi-racial or from other ethnic backgrounds. Finding ways to engage my disengaged students in reading, writing and speaking is critical in helping them improve their performance on standardized test and preparing them for life after middle school. Consequently, I often use media arts in my pedagogy. Last year I collaborated with the Philadelphia Arts and Education Partnership (PAEP) and received a Pennsylvania Council of the Arts (PCA) Art Commentary grant to conduct inquiry around identity construction using visual and performing arts. Students enthusiastically created masks, dolls, portraits and films while exploring the theme "Who am I". Furthermore, I have had previous success using hip-hop in the classroom. What sets this unit apart from my previous work is the deeper inquiry students will make on the role persuasion has in the performing and visual arts they often take for granted.
Using hip-hip and its art of persuasion will allow me to anchor my unit within a media literacy framework while also helping to improve students' research and writing skills. By using media literacy I will be able to connect traditional social studies and writing curricula with students' hip-hop worldview. The 2005 Kaiser Family Foundation's study, Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds, found that young people spend an average of 6.5 hours a day interacting with electronic media--often using multiple media simultaneously. Only 43 minutes are spent reading, while nearly four hours are spent watching TV, an hour and 44 minutes listening to music, and over an hour using the computer. (Sperry 2006) Hip-hop is major force in the media. The hope is that by placing our inquiry around hip-hop I will lead students to critically question how that idiom is constructed; what values are conveyed in hip-hop messages; how audiences respond to hip-hop; and what messages are left out in hip-hop. Who makes hip-hop art forms and who sponsors artists? Ultimately through an inquiry process students will be taught to ask essential questions about how hip-hip persuades and informs their world view.
What is the purpose of hip-hop and its message?
Many artists are aware that records companies are more interested in selling records than they are in selling authentic cultural products (Tshombe 215). The hip-hop movement started off as a fundamentally positive art form responding to the negative forces of living in poverty and oppressive environments. However, commercialism has taken over and as result gangsta rap, violence and sex is what is consumed by most teens. Some hip-hop purists believe that the industry has been corrupted and it is hard for an artist who wants to push a positive message to get a contract or endorsement. DJ Quick illustrated this point as follows:
The industry. It's corrupting a lot of people in hip-hop... They say, Yo!
Can, you give us that flavor? And at the same time you're like, well, Yo I
don't rap like that." "Well, I'm telling you now this is what is selling...
gats [guns] and drinking.... Just put a little of this in your rhymes." So
now they try to brainwash people. I've seen it happen, man. They start
brainwashing kids, and instead of standing their ground, they say "All
right. For twenty five G' [thousand] up front, I might as well put a little bit
in. What ?s it going hurt" (Thshombe 216)
Most of my students often don't understand the relationship between rap content and its profit motive. By having students study the intersection of the art of persuasion with the art of hip-hop they may begin to understand how hip-hop artists mediate the tensions between commercial interest and community interest. Students will be able to ask critical questions such as: Why are some products placed in certain video shots, and why do certain rap artists "drop" [mention] commercial products in their rap lyrics? What messages are communicated and/or implied about certain people, places, events lifestyles, etc? How credible is the information in hip-hop messages? (Sperry 2006)
Hip Hop Art and Commerce
Having students focus on the duality of hip-hop as an art form and commercial enterprise will lead them to understand the effect hip-hop plays in our global marketplace of ideas and commodities. The plan is not to vilify hip-hop as evil and commodity driven, but to come up with rubrics to appreciate its creative and persuasive nature. However, by asking students to study, analyze, and create arguments for and against hip-hop, they should become more critical consumers. By exploring how hip-hop is packaged and sold students should begin to understand some of the conflicts related to hip-hop and its persuasive power. (Walker, 2001)
Hip Hop and Academic Discourse
Hip-hop is relevant inside and outside the academy. Michael Eric Dyson, a noted scholar and cultural critic, has written numerous books and articles about hip-hop and its impact on youth culture in particular and society in general. Jay Z, a famous hip-hop artist, who most of my students recognize, legitimizes Dyson and the academic study of hip-hop in his introduction to Dyson's book, Know What I Mean: Reflection of Hip-Hop.
Dyson came up from the bottom and told those on top what was
up.... He started out translating between "us" and "them" ... How
many folk out there can talk about pimping in terms laid out by
Hegel? Or use Kant to explain the way that prison fashion moved
from the cellblock to the city block? Dyson drops the names of
philosophers and scholars as easily as he does the names of artists
on the latest mix tape moving dance floors in the clubs. (Jay Z, iv)
It will be great to show my students that debate and inquiry about hip-hop is as serious on "street" and as it is in academic discourse. But what are the most effective tools to engage my many of my reluctant readers?
Persuasive Hip-Hop Writing
Using media literacy to explore hip-hop will provide an effective method to engage my students with topics that resonate with their personal experiences. Instead of merely reading and writing, students will learn to contextualize and persuade. In the past when teaching persuasive essays I have had my students write on whether hip-hop had a positive or negative impact on young people. We did a cursory review of the some elements of hip-hop, such as DJing, rapping, and break dancing. We also explored how hip-hop is represented in other parts of the world like Japan, Russia and in parts of Africa. Even after providing context for both positive and negative aspects of hip-hop some students had difficulty crafting their arguments. The fact that hip-hop had both good and bad aspects made it more challenging for some students to plan and write their essays. While graphic organizers helped in outlining the pros and cons of hip-hop, my emerging writers still struggled to write proficient essays. Only my intermediate and advanced writers were effective in using counter arguments to support their premise that hip-hop had a positive or negative impact on young people. One of my best students made nuanced arguments that showed both the positive and negative impact of hip-hop. What made this student's argument persuasive was his ability to use hip-hop lyrics as well as quotes from artists and critics to support his thesis. Engaging in a deeper inquiry about hip-hop and the art of persuasion should help students make more effective arguments regarding hip hop's positive and negative impact on youth culture.
Hip-Hop Building Classroom Community
Hip-hop is a legitimate literacy tool to use in both reading and social studies classes. According to K. Leigh Hamm Forrell, incorporating hip-hop can build community in the classroom between students, their peers and teachers. (Forrell 28) Connecting with what many students perceive as their culture will empower and engage students to read and write beyond the formulaic five paragraph persuasive essay that is required for standardized assessments. Quoting a student who was in my reading and social studies class:
When we did those essays about how we feel about hip-hop having
positive or negative effect on kids, it was like you were tricking us to learn
how to write. Before doing this project, I did not know I could write so
much about any topic. (Hayes 2006)
This student was not atypical among my emerging and basic writers. My teaching practice and scholarship confirms that including students' cultural artifacts--visual art, lyrics, video, films, fashion and popular iconic figures--combats disengagement while simultaneously developing reading and writing stamina. Ultimately this helps students negotiate the standard curriculum mandates. Pennsylvania State Academic Assessment standards for 6th grade are provided in appendix # 1.
As a culminating activity, students will create, sample rap lyrics and produce multi-media public service announcements (PSAs) to practice elements of persuasion using hip hop. This project will allow students to synthesize what they learned about hip-hop and the art of persuasion. Students will showcase their critical thinking and higher-order thinking skills using communications and media technologies such as cameras, software and the pod-cast.
While this unit will be anchored in standard persuasive writing, I will integrate media literacy practices through reading and social studies content. I will teach such concepts as free speech, democracy, media economics, advertising, music history and popular culture. The unit will guide students' inquiry into how hip-hop persuades and influences lifestyle choices of young people. Through the study of persuasive writing and inquiry on hip-hop students will improve their reading, writing, researching, critical thinking and media literacy skills. Detailed objectives are described within 3 major categories below:
Researching and Analyzing Media Economics and Hip Hop To provide students with background knowledge I will cover topics in media literacy aligned with the school district's standardized social studies curriculum. I plan to use the Public Broadcasting Station (PBS) documentary "Beyond Beats and Rhyme" and a PBS News Hour Report "Hip Hop Is Style" to expose students to the history and persuasive nature of hip-hop. Once students obtain background knowledge about hip-hop and persuasive forms they will conduct inquiry about the relationship between hip-hop art and its persuasive enterprise. Students will conduct web research on hip-hop and media economics. Students will explore how hip-hop promotes fashion, products and certain lifestyle choices. Lastly, students will complete a first person narrative research report about their journey of discovering the persuasive nature of hip-hop and thus become critical consumers.
Reading, Writing and Responding about Hip Hop Culture
To improve media literacy practices, students will write editorials, reviews, persuasive essays and other writing. The reading and writing of editorials will activate students' inquiry about the nature of persuasion. Mini-lessons provided about hip-hop's history and its market driven influence will augment students' inquiry. Students will write persuasive essays based on their initial inquiry into hip-hop culture and market forces. Incorporating hip-hop lyrics to learn about media literacy will allow me to inter-mingle the aesthetics of culture with its actual practices. For example, I can use lyrics to explore media and persuasion, to discover hip-hop music styles, or to explore deeper questions about identity. Students may interpret and analyze music videos to situate culture in context. Through interpretation and analysis of certain music videos students will learn to appreciate the complexities of hip-hop culture along with their own identity. Students will learn to read and respond to lyrics and music videos in much the same way they would a work of fiction or a non-fiction text. They will make connections with theme, character, setting, plot, etc. Students will learn to critically view music videos such as "My Adidas", and determine what literary and persuasion techniques are being used.
Creating Hip Hop Multi Media Persuasion Products
To support students in synthesizing their inquiry about hip-hop and its persuasive power, students will create their own multi-media end products. I plan to collaborate with organizations such as Temple University's Media Education Lab and our expressive arts teachers -music, computer studies, and art and design teachers- to support students in creating digital hip-hop PSA's. By using hip-hop lyrics and visual media, students will showcase what they have learned by combining critical and higher order thinking skills. Students will create story boards and use rap lyrics, images, text, sounds, and animation to communicate to targeted audiences. Students will use their technological and media savvy skills to follow the creative process from planning, storyboarding, filming and editing. They will create their own rap lyrics, or incorporate with "fair use", music and hip hop images using IMovie and Garage Band. To culminate the project I plan a celebratory event to highlight students' accomplishments. In addition to watching their peers' finished products, students will perform spoken word, rap and demonstrate dancing and other hip-hop art forms discovered during the inquiry process. For this project, the journey and process will be celebrated as much as the completion of the end products.
Because I teach two sixth grade classes of literacy (reading and writing) and social studies during at least 120 minutes per day, I will have ample time to spread my unit over 6-8 weeks. The core content of this unit will be taught primarily during social studies lessons. However, some of the writing and reading skills will be taught during my balanced literacy block. Alternatively, I can teach the unit over an entire marking period incorporating media and financial literacy embedded across the reading, writing and social studies curriculum.
Before, During and After Persuasive Techniques
The Pennsylvania State Standards Assessment (PSSA) in reading and writing requires students to become proficient in persuasive techniques. Therefore, our study of persuasion will be deliberate. Before students write persuasive essays for their writing portfolio grades, students will complete a BDA (Before, During and After reading) exercise in which they analyze, compare and contrast editorials, advertisements and hiphop lyrics' persuasive techniques. BDA strategy is an interactive reading and note-taking tool that allows students to comprehend information and literary text. Before reading, students can prepare to read by scanning text and pictures for clues, making predictions, or setting a purpose. During reading, students can ask questions and have dialogue with the text. "Text rendering" is an example of a during-reading activity. Text rendering directs students to say or highlight any words, phrases or sentences that resonate for any reason, including confusion and lack of understanding. I plan to use BDA strategies for reading editorials, rap lyrics, non-fiction and fiction text related to hip-hop culture.
Other Graphic Organizer and tools that can be used during BDA activities are provided below:
K-W-L - What You Already Know, What you Want to Know and What You Learned
Using a K-W-L graphic organizer is a good starting point for eliciting students' prior knowledge and determining what they knew about a particular genre, concept or persuasive techniques. Using KWL is great with inquiry planning because teachers can ask probing questions to lead student to learn new things; and after completing the reading, writing and inquiry process students can describe what new things they learned. When asking clarifying questions it encourages students to think for themselves. I let my students know I do not have all the answers. I find that facilitating discussions through using a K-W-L chart supports both my higher and lower functioning readers and writers.
After leading class discussions, I have students work in small groups and revise and illustrate their K-W-L charts which helps expand their thinking and make connections to their inquiry projects.
Using a Venn diagram allows students to organize information to compare and contrast genres, concepts or literary elements. For example, students can represent the similarities and differences of persuasion in hip-hop lyrics with editorials or advertisements. Elements of persuasion that could be found in hip-hop lyrics, advertisements or editorials include: hooks -special attention grabbers- repetition of key words or terms, use of facts, statistics, real life experiences and analogies. I plan to conduct mini-lessons using an inter-active Venn Diagram found on the ReadWriteThink website. ( http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/venn/ )
A vocabulary square is a graphic organizer divided into four quadrants that helps students demonstrate their understanding of word origins or parts of speech, synonyms or antonyms, visuals logos or icons and formal brief definition of words (Burke, 178) Students really take ownership of words that they are able to show their understanding from multiple perspectives. I will use vocabulary squares when previewing persuasive, economic, or literary terms as well as interesting or difficult terms words found in hiphop lyrics or terminology. Vocabulary squares can be found on the following link: http://englishseven.com/toolsforthought/VocabSquares.pdf
Literary and Sound Devices
Persuasive writing is full of literary and sound devices. Students often enjoy the sound or literary pleasure of rap music. But when they come across literary or sound devices in academic text they seemed less engaged. I will create or use pre-existing graphic organizers to help students scan lyrics and text for examples of sound devices and figurative language. Through this process students should be better able to understand some of the emotional appeal found in both hip-hop and academic persuasive writing.
As per the Philadelphia School District's reading curriculum, students must be able to respond to open-ended prompts related to fiction and non-fiction text. For example, the TAG it 3 strategy graphically helps students to Turn the prompt into an opening statement; Answer the prompt; Give details, evidence and examples from the text to support their answers. The more practice students have with this method of responding to text the better they perform on their state test. Therefore, I will have students write constructive responses for standard academic text such as editorials and persuasive letters as well for advertisements and hip-hop lyrics. Refer to the link ( http://www.phila.k12.pa.us/schools/creighton/PSSA%20tag.pdf ) to see how this strategy looks and works graphically.
To support students' reading, writing and critical thinking skills I will conduct mini-lessons on interpreting hip-hop lyrics and music videos. I will model how to respond to persuasive hip-hop lyrics and other texts. A persuasive writing rubric will be used to assess students' proficiency in convincing readers that hip-hop has either a positive or negative influence on youth culture. Furthermore, I will use the school district standardized reading strategy to help students respond to open-ended prompts about hiphop lyrics and culture
Persuasive Writing Graphic Organizer
Using a graphic organizer to plan and draft persuasive pieces provides an effective way for students to outline their basic premise, reasons, supporting facts and opinions. Providing a structure of this type makes it easier for students to develop an effective introduction, body and conclusion for persuasive essays. I further plan to show students how to use quotes from rap lyrics as hooks or attention grabbers in their persuasive essays on whether hip-hop has a positive or negative impact on youth culture.
Hip-Hop Persuasive Investigation.
To bridge the connection between persuasion found in formal academic text with hip-hop lyrics students will use a hip-hop investigation organizer. Students will locate lyrics and analyze the premise of the lyrics, the facts and opinions used, describe what product or life style is being promoted and note if the hip hop artist has the credibility (i.e. " street cred") to promote the ideas found in the lyrics. Sample lesson plan # 2 provides more details for this inquiry approach.
Because the strategies used in the unit are varied, lessons can be easily staggered over a longer time period, or implemented as discrete lessons taught in a stand-alone fashion. The strategies in this unit can be similarly grouped into three categories:
Inquiry learning provides students an opportunity to improve their critical thinking skills. David S. Jake, et al. in an online article "Inquiry Based learning and the Web" posit that inquiry-based learning is a process where students formulate questions, obtain facts, and then build knowledge to reflect on their original question. (Jake et al. 15 March 2007) To support students' inquiry and research skills, I will ask them to explore the essential question "how does hip hop's persuasive appeal impact youth consumer and lifestyle choices?" An essential question such as this one frames the research and requires students to make decisions and make a plan of action. My students will complete a first person narrative research project. Through their discoveries, students will explore the aesthetics of rap, hip-hop fashion, dance and visual arts. By using inquiry students will understand how hip-hop persuades and influences youth culture.
I will conduct mini-lessons to initiate the inquiry process. Using K-W-L to determine what students know about hip-hop, persuasion and media economics could be a good starting point. To guide students to come up with manageable I-Search, personal research projects it is important to allow for active discourse between teacher and students as well as among students in small groups. Students may be grouped according to the research interests and other variables determined by the teacher. Often many of my students know far more about formal academic concepts than they realize. It is through talk that they really make connections to what they know informally with formal academic content. For example, if I ask students what they know about persuasion and its role in the media, initially, many might not be able to articulate well on this topic. However, through questioning students about what they know about hip-hop and its influence on fashion, language, and life styles students may began to understand the role persuasion plays in hip-hop in general and the media in particular. Discourse allows students to ask lots of questions of the teacher and for the teacher to ask further probing questions or turn questions back around to other students. It is from this discourse that students refine their own personal inquiry stance. In addition to discourse, I will haves lots of secondary resources available. This may include hip-hop magazines, articles, videos and documentaries. Special media artists may visit or field trips planned to obtain primary resources. Furthermore, students will visit the library and music-media lab to conduct web searches on their inquiry topics.
Multi Media Strategies
To prepare students to create hip-hop inspired PSA's mini-lessons will be conducted either by visiting media specialists or myself on how to use cameras, audio, video clips, I-Movie and Garage Band. However, students will not be allowed to use cameras or practice using media making software until they complete storyboards for their PSA's. When creating storyboards students will consider: target audience, visual images, script, text, lyrics, sound track, transitions and special effects. Websites such as www.storycenter.org and www.streetside.org will be reviewed to offer models of student-created digital stories. Furthermore, students will discuss and analyze music videos and how hop-hip finds its way in product or lifestyle promotions. Through modeling and viewing digital stories and videos, students should be able to come up with some original ways to use persuasive techniques to promote positive lifestyle choices at school, home or in the community. Visiting media specialists will reinforce ideas I present on copyright and "fair use" practices. While covering "fair use" we will spend time discussing the history and practice of sampling in rap music and other hip hop art forms.
Assessments will include evaluation of students' persuasive essays, research reports and their hip-hop multi-media PSA's. The I-Search will be graded for its completeness; writing standards (focus, content, organization, style and convention) and the validity of students' research. Included in the grade will be an assessment of the student's ability to use internet sources, personal interviews, direct quotes, and lyrics. A sample project description for the Hip-Hop and Persuasion I-Search Project is located on Appendix 2.
Students' persuasive essays will demonstrate understanding of hip-hop (lyrics, history, and media literacy). Students' hip-hop reviews will be assessed on how they describe and constructively analyze hip-hop lyrics, fashion, dance or other creative art forms. Ultimately students should uncover how hip-hop responds to social justice issues.
Classroom Activities / Lesson Plans
Sample Lesson Plan 1
Title: My Adidas - Finding Persuasion in Hip Hop
Grade Range and Subjects: 6th - 8th Grade Social Studies and Literacy (Reading and Writing):
Duration of Lesson: 2-4 Class Periods of at Least 45 Minutes.
The specific goals are to: identify significant persuasion tools found in hip hop lyrics; explain the relationship between hip hop art and hip-hop business; analyze how hip hop is major part of mass culture; understand the relationships between music, history, and culture; use a variety of primary sources to gather information for research topics; read and analyze lyrics and poetry and write constructive responses.
The materials and resources include but are not limited to: print and electronic lyrics, online media links, PowerPoint, pre-formatted or teacher generated graphic organizers.
Inquiry Question: What do we know about how hip-hop persuades?
Warm Up Activity - Before Reading: The Pleasures of Rap and Poetry
Students will scan the lyrics "My Adidas" then in groups of four read the lyrics out loud. After this, students will complete a graphic organizer identifying the sound devices and figurative language found in the lyrics.
Mini Lesson - Text Rendering: Persuasion Found in Hip-Hop Lyrics Using web sites (http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2dn7d_run-dmc-my-adidas pub_street ); (http://www.metacafe.com/watch/1041994/my_adidas_story/ ) and PBS NewsHour Report "Hip Hop is Style," the teacher will discuss lyrics and brief history of hip-hop's influence on the Adidas brand. Students and teacher will read article from PBS' NewsHour online to provide more background on the relationship between hip-hop and fashion. The teacher will ask students to identify a sentence, phrase and word that stand out in the text and discuss elements of persuasion found in the report "Hip-Hip Is Style."
Activities - Response to Hip-Hop Is Style
Students will do a close re-reading of lyrics paying attention to how lyrics of "My Adidas" use persuasion. The teacher and students will explore persuasive words found in the lyrics as well as discuss issues related to hip-hop economics. Students' notes will cover the following questions: What does the title "My Adidas" represent, why is it repeated so much in the rap? What mood does the rap create? Does the effect of seeing the video and hearing the rap create a different mood as compared to just reading the lyrics alone? How does it make you feel to know that the background music is more like rock as opposed to R & B? If Run DMC never agreed to produce this song, do you think the Adidas brand would have had the same popularity? What other examples of rap lyrics can you think of that use persuasive techniques to sell products or lifestyles?
After completing, the discussion questions students will write a constructive response, describing who the speaker in the lyrics, "My Adidas" is talking to and how the speaker is using persuasion to convince his audience that Adidas is a powerful brand. Students' responses will provide at least 3 examples from the lyrics.
Wrap-up or Extension--Persuasive Hip-Hop Lyrics Investigation
As a wrap-up, students will research or locate lyrics from popular hip hop artists and identify persuasive techniques found in the lyrics. Students will complete a graphic organizer to analyze and critique persuasion elements found in hip hop lyrics. Students will be asked to describe what makes the lyrics persuasive. What is the premise of the lyrics or artist? What facts or opinions does the artist use to persuade his/her audience? Are the lyrics promoting a product, lifestyle, or both?Sample Lesson Plan 2 Formatted
Title: Persuasive Essays- Does Hip Hop Have a Positive or Negative Impact on Youth Culture.
Grade Range and Subjects 6th - 8th Grade Social Studies and Literacy (Reading and Writing)
Duration of Lesson: 4-8 Class Periods of at Least 45 Minutes.
The specific goals include but are not limited to: identifying significant persuasion tools found in hip-hop lyrics; explaining the relationship between hip-hop art and hip-hop business; using a variety of primary sources to gather information for research topics; understanding the format and style of hip-hip persuasion and write persuasive essays.
The materials and resources include but are not limited to: print and electronic lyrics, online media links, PowerPoint, pre-formatted or teacher generated graphic organizers.
Inquiry Question: What role does persuasion have on hip-hop culture?
Warm Up Activity - K-W-L Hip-Hop and the Art of Persuasion
Students will complete a K-W-L chart listing what they already know about persuasion and hip-hop. What new things they want to know? After the project is complete they can list the new things they learned. The teacher should allow for lots of discourse and ask probing questions to help students generate extensive lists for their K-W-L charts. For the warm-up students may list 3-5 things they know about persuasion and hip hop. However, for the K-W-L chart to be considered complete, students should name at least 15 things they know and want to know about the topic. The more questions students have the better their inquiry process will progress.
Mini Lesson - Persuasive Graphic Organizers
The teacher will model how to use persuasive graphic organizers. He or she will guide students in taking a position on whether hip hop has a negative or positive impact on youth culture. The teacher will model for students how to graphically organize their thoughts and ideas for the introduction, body and conclusion of their persuasive essays. The teacher should use appropriate and reading level accessible magazine articles, web sites or previous students' essays to show both sides of the debate. Through mini-lessons, the teacher will model how to develop a premise, provide 3 reasons to support a position, and provide at least 3 facts or opinions for each reason, as well as be able to restate the premise or position in a different way. Several sample persuasive graphic organizers can be found by clicking on (http://www.region15.org/curriculum/pwp.pdf).
Activities: Composing Persuasive Essays Using Hip-Hop Hooks.
Students will draft and revise persuasive essays convincing readers that hip-hop either has a positive or negative impact on youth culture. Students' essays may include rap lyrics or quotes from rap artists or critics as hooks to grab and maintain readers' interest. Students will use statistics, facts and opinions to support their positions. Higher level writers will use counterarguments to support their positions. Once drafts are complete students can do self or peer reviews using a persuasive writing checklist. The checklist or rubric can show if the writer has provided an effective premise, attention-grabbing hooks, at least three reasons to support their position, organization, structure, effective writers' voice, and few grammatical errors. A generic checklist can be found at ( http://worksheetplace.com/mf/pw1.pdf ).
Wrap up or Extension - I Search - Hip Hop and Persuasion Inquiry
After completing their persuasive essays, students may begin deeper inquiry on what role persuasion plays in hip-hop lyrics and lifestyle. Students will use the internet as well as other secondary and primary sources to write their own first person narrative about their process and discoveries.
Sample Lesson Plan 3
Title: Persuasive Hip-Hop Public Service Announcement
Grade Range and Subjects: 6th - 8th Grade Media Arts and Literacy (Reading and Writing)
Duration of Lesson: 6-8 Class Periods of at Least 45 Minutes.
The specific goals include: creating storyboards, planning, and producing and performing hip-hop inspired public service announcements (PSA's) demonstrating persuasive appeals using multi-media technology while incorporating: images, lyrics, text, music, transitions and special effects; demonstrating acceptable "fair use" practices by sampling lyrics, text, data, royalty free images and content; displaying multi-media and hip-hop art showing the persuasive power of hip hop.
Materials / Resources: LCD projection, royalty free material, Digital Camera, I Movie, Garage Band, pre-formatted or teacher generated story board templates.
Inquiry Question: How can hip-hop be used to persuade youth to do positive things?
Warm Up Activity - "Sample This-Quick Write."
Students will first silently read the quotes
Caught, now in court ' cause I stole a beat / this is a sampling sport / mail from the courts and jail / claims I stole the beats that I rail ... I found this mineral that I call a beat / I paid zero... (Chuck D interview-- http://www.alternet.org/story/18830/ )
Plagiarism - Literary theft. Plagiarism occurs when a writer duplicates another writer's language or ideas and then calls the work his or her own. Copyright laws protect writers' words as the ir legal property. To avoid the charge of plagiarism, writers take care to credit those from whom they borrow and quote. (American Heritage Dictionary Online) After reading the quotes, students should complete a "quick write." Is hip hop artists use of sampled lyrics, plagiarism? Why or why not? Students will write a brief paragraph stating their views about sampling. Then they will share out loud their responses and make a T chart showing the pros and cons of sampling music used in rap lyrics.
Mini Lesson - Demonstrate "Fair Use" Practices in Hip Hop
The teacher or visiting media artist will provide mini-lessons on copyright and "fair use" guidelines for school projects. It is critical for teachers to spend time covering what is the acceptable use of music, photographs and motion media. The general limitations to be discussed include: Motion Media (such as movies, commercial, or television programs): 10 percent or 30 seconds; Text: 10 percent or 1000 words; Music, Lyrics, music videos: 10 percent or 30 seconds; Numerical data sets: 10 percent or 2,500 field or cell entries; Illustrations and photographs: 10 percent or 15 images in collection; no more than five by a single artist or photographer. (Christel, 228)
Students must understand that they still must cite or credit their sources. If they want to use more content than the above noted limitations, they must write the copyright holder for permission. To assess whether students understand acceptable "Fair Use" practices, different scenarios using hip-hop lyrics, images, and text will be presented and students will have to decide if the case is acceptable or not acceptable "Fair Use".
Activities - Beyond the Beats and Rhymes
Students will view selected media-literacy clips of the documentary "Beyond the Beats and Rhymes". This documentary directed by Byron Hurt in association with Independent Lens Television Services examines hip-hop and its commercial appeal. The particular segments of the film that explore issues around media literacy will provide excellent context for my students to consider ways that hip hop could promote positive non-sexist, non-homophobic messages that inspire youth to do positive social justice service learning. Clips from this film along with teacher resources may be viewed at ( http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/classroom/hiphop.html ). While viewing the segments of the documentary students will take notes covering the following questions: What is the brief history of hip-hop? What does hip-hop culture represent? How did seeing the film clips change your views about how gender and violence is glorified in music videos and rap lyrics? Did seeing this film inspire you to want to find new ways to use hip-hop promote positive social change? Why or why not? What impact does the violence and aggression displayed in music videos and rap lyrics have in shaping young men and women's identity?
Wrap up or Extension -- Hip Hop Public Service Announcements (PSAs)
This unit may culminate with a hip-hop PSAs showcase. With support from a media arts partner such as Temple University's Media Education Lab students work may be presented at outside venues. In preparation for the showcase students may work in groups of four; students will form production teams to create a persuasive digital PSAs to deal with issues like bullying, youth violence, teen pregnancy, recycling, littering, etc. The teacher or media artist will model how to use storyboards for planning their own digital videos or pod-cast. Students may use images from their research process, persuasive essays, hip-hop critiques as well as create their own material. They will use multi-media images and present live performances of raps, spoken word, hip-hop inspired dance moves to reflect their inquiry findings.
Annotated Works Cited / Resources List
Works Cited / Teacher Resources
American Heritage Dictionary of English Language. 2006. Houghton Mifflin Company. 06 Jun 2008 <http://dictionary.reference.com/>. Provides a useful online dictionary reference source.
Burke, James. Tools of Thought: graphic organizers for your classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002. A book written by Jim Burke of Burlingame High School, California, is a must have for teachers using graphic organizers for English and Humanities content.
Christel, Mary. Lessons Plans for Creating Media-Rich Classroom. Ed. Mary Christel, Scott Sullivan. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 2007. Provides practical ideas for incorporating media literacy in classrooms. It comes with a companion teacher's resources disk.
Condry Ian. Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Paths of Cultural Globalizations. Chapel Hill,
N.C: Duke University Press, 2006. This book examines the influence of hip-hop in Japan and its global influence on popular culture.
Cooper, Martha. Hip Hop Files: Photographs, 1979-1984. Cologne, New York: From Here to Fame Publishing Co., 2004. This picture book provides vivid images of hip-hop art and culture, from graffiti, to break dancing.
Dyson, Michael. Know What I Mean? : Reflections on Hip-Hop. New York: Basic Civitas Book, 2007. This book contains an introduction by Jay Z and afterward by Nas. This book explores hip hop from the academic perspective, but makes it relevant to youth and older hip-hop enthusiasts.
Forell, K. Leigh Hamm. "Ideas in Practice: Bringin' Hip-Hop to the Basic." Journal of Developmental Education 30(Winter 2006): 28-33. This article is geared toward college settings, but still provides practical insights for using hip-hop discourse to build classroom community.
Hayes, C. Personal Interview. 05. May 2008. I quoted one of my students and he was excited that I valued his thought enough to place them in my paper. It is great to use students as sources for your research as well as use students' work to model the inquiry process.
International Reading Association & National Council of Teachers of English. ReadWriteThink: Student Materials: Venn Diagram. 16 Feb. 2007. http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/venn/index.html. NCTE web site offers valuables tools like this interactive Venn diagram. This link could be used to model for students how to use Venn diagram to compare and contrast different music genres or persuasion styles.
Jake, David, Pennington Mark E., Knodle Howard. A. Using the Internet to Promote Inquiry-Based Learning. 15 Feb 2007. < http://www.biopoint.com/inquiry/ibr.html .> This e-paper describes a structured approach to using the internet to support inquiry-based learning.
Kelley, Robin D. "Introduction." Harlem on the Verge. comp. Alice Attie. New York: Quick Lane Press, 2003. This picture book provides excellent images of hip-hop's influence on Harlem's changing landscape.
Kitwana, Bakari. Why White Kids Love Hip Hop. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2005. This book provides critical insights into hip-hop urban and suburban growth and development. This book would be useful for teachers and students' research.
McLeod, Kembrew. "How Copyright Law Changed Hip Hop." An interview with Public Enemy's Chuck D and Hank Shocklee about hip-hop, sampling, and how copyright law altered the way hip-hop artists made their music 01-06-2004 1-4. 16 May 2008 <http://www.alternet.org/story/18830/>. This interview with Chuck D provides background information about sampling and the tensions around copyrighting in hip-hop art. This article could be useful for student research and mini-lessons on copyright issues.
Parker, Diane. Planning for Inquiry: It's not an oxymoron. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 2007. This book provides tips and strategies for implementing inquiry at the lower and upper elementary grade levels.
Reaching the Hip-Hop Generation. The MEE Report. Philadelphia: MEE Production Inc. 1991. This report provides insight on hip-hop the generation and covers strategies of delivering communications to the urban youth market.
Sperry, Chris. "The Search for Truth - Teaching media literacy, core content and essential for healthy democracy." Threshold 8(Winter 2006): 8-11. This article provides strategies and perspectives of using media literacy in core subject matters such as
social studies and language arts.
Walker, Tshombe. "Hip Hop and Rap Music Industry." African American Jazz and Rap. ed. James L Conyers, Jr. North Carolina: McFarland & Company Inc., 2001. This article provides a balance scholarly and practical analysis of the hip-hop industry.
Yee, Lee Sirmans Franklin. "Introduction." One Planet Under the Groove- Hip hop and contemporary art. comp. Karen Kelly. Bronx: Bronx Museum of the Arts, 2001. This publication accompanies a provocative exhibition of hip-hop art.
Student's Bibliography / Resources
Baker, Soren. The History of Rap and Hip Hop. New York: Lucent, 2006. This book written for younger readers chronicles the growth and development of hip hop culture.
Fresh, Doug E. Think Again (Think Kid Hop). New York: Scholastic Inc, 2002. This exciting children's picture book provides a good model for positive hip-hop messages. A rap along CD accompanies the book.
Giovanni, Nikki. Hip-Hop Speaks to Children With Audio CD: A Celebration of Poetry with a Beat (A Poetry Speaks Experience). Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks Jabberwocky, 2008. This children's book combines elements of poetry and hip hop my students will enjoy. The companion CD contains voice over contributions by both poets and hip-hop artists.
Scott, Damion, and Kris Ex. How to Draw Hip-Hop. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2006. This book provides drawing and illustrations techniques for creating hip-hop art. Students may use this book for design ideas for their PSA's.
The Vibe History of Hip-Hop. Comp. Vibe Magazine. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1999. This compilation provides great illustrations and accompanying text of the story behind the hip-hop movement. Students could use this book for their inquiry projects.
Student Web and Media Resources
Burke, James "Vocabulary Squares." tools for thought. 2006. Heinemann. 06 Jun 2008 <http://englishseven.com/toolsforthought/VocabSquares.pdf>. This handout can be used to support students' hip-hop and academic vocabulary skills development.
Hip-Hop: Beyond Beats & Rhymes. Dir. Byron Hurt. Perf. 50 Cent, Carmen Ashurt Watson, Dr Jelani Cobb Chuck D. Dr Michael Eric Dyson, Jada Kiss, Mos Def. DVD. Independent Lens, 2007. This film explores issues around gender, violence and media literacy. I plan to show limited segments of the film to give context for our students' inquiry projects.
"Hip-Hop Style" What is Cool?" NewsHour's Hip-Hop Report The Online NewsHour. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/infocus/fashion/hiphop.html>. This hip-hop report focuses on the role hip-hop plays in fashion. From this online report there is a link to video clip of news coverage about hip-hop fashion trends.
Just for Kicks - My Adidas Story. Dir. Thierry Daher. Perf. Sneaker Collectors, Hip Hop Artists, Brand Marketers. Online Video. Caidproductions, 2008. This brief documentary provides an overview of the Adidas hip-hop and sneaker connection. This film can be uploaded at http://www.metacafe.com/watch/1041994/my_adidas_story .
"Persuasive Writing Checklist." Free Worksheets. Worksheetplace.com. 17 Jun 2008 <http://worksheetplace.com/mf/pw1.pdf. >.This site provides printable checklist and worksheets to support students during the writing process.
"Persuasive Writing Graphic Organizer." Region 15 Curriculum Resources. Regional School District 15 Middlebury and Southbury, CT. 17 Jun 2008 <http://www.region15.org/curriculum/pwp.pdf>. This link provides several examples of persuasive writing graphic organizers.
Run DMC - My Adidas Pub. Online Video. Dailymotion, 2006. This video adaptation recorded in France can be uploaded online at http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2dn7d_run-dmc-my-adidas-pub_street . This 45 second clip shows the global reach hip-hop commodities have in the marketplace.
Street Side Stories. 19 Jun 2008 <www.streetside.org >. This site helps give elementary and middle school students a voice through digital story telling.
Center for Digital Stories. Center for Digital Story Telling. 19 Jun 2008 <www.storycenter.org>.This site provides digital resources for teachers and students.
"Tag It A 3." PSSA Test Taking Strategies. School District of Philadelphia. 06 Jun 2008 <http://www.phila.k12.pa.us/schools/creighton/PSSA%20tag.pdf>. This graphic organizer provides the process for responding to fiction and non-fiction text.
Appendix 1: Pennsylvania and School District of Philadelphia Curriculum Standards
Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening and Viewing Standards Standard: Reading #1 - Apply effective reading strategies to comprehend, organize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate texts to construct meaning.
Standard: Reading #2 - Read a variety of materials including fiction and non-fiction, classic and contemporary texts from a diversity of cultures (especially African, Asian/Pacific, European, Latino, and Native American cultures), communication systems, and functional texts.
Standard: Reading #3 - Read for a variety of purposes: to seek information; to apply knowledge; to enhance enjoyment; to engage in inquiry and research; to expand world views; to understand individuality, shared humanity, and the heritage of the people in our city as well as the contributions of a diversity of groups to American culture and other cultures throughout the world.
Standard: Writing #1 - Plan, draft, revise, and publish writing using correct grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, spelling, and effective vocabulary, appropriate to the purpose, context, and audience.
Standard: Writing #2 -Write for academic, personal, social, civic, and school-to-career purposes.
Standard: Writing #3 -Write in a variety of forms including journals, essays, stories, letters, plays, poems, and reports using figurative, descriptive, literary, and technical language.
Standard: Writing #4 -Conduct and document inquiry-based research using oral, print, and communications systems.
Standard: Speaking #1 - Speak for a variety of purposes including informing, persuading, questioning, problem solving, sharing ideas and stories, reaching consensus, and responding sensitively and respectfully using language appropriate to the context, audience, and purpose.
Standard: Speaking #2 - Speak using effective communication skills including enunciation, inflection, volume, fluency, and non-verbal gestures.
Standard: Listening #1 - Listen actively for a variety of purposes including comprehending, interpreting, analyzing, evaluating, responding effectively, and for enjoyment Standard: Viewing -View media, technology, and live performances for a variety of purposes including gathering information, making informed judgments, processing information, and for enjoyment.
Social Studies Standards
Culture - Demonstrate an understanding of culture and how culture affects the individual and society.
Time, Continuity, and Change - Analyze historical events, conditions, trends and issues to understand the way human beings view themselves, their institutions, and others, now and over time, to enable them to make informed choices and decisions.
People, Places, and Environment - Apply geographic skills and knowledge to demonstrate an understanding of how geography affects people, places, movement, and environments.
Individuals, Groups and Institutions Demonstrate an understanding of the role of individuals, groups, and institutions and how their actions and interactions exert powerful influences on society.
Media, Technique, Processes - Understand and apply art media, techniques, and processes.
Reflecting on Artwork -Observe, reflect, and value the characteristics, meanings, uses, and merits of one's own artwork and artwork from diverse cultural groups and historical periods.
Appendix 2: Hip-Hop and Persuasion I-Search Paper Project Description
The following sections must be included for this project:
1. My Question (becomes the introduction) What do you want to find out about the connection between hip-hop art and the art of persuasion? Describe why you were interested in this topic and how it connects with your understanding of how hip-hop is shaped by persuasion. You need to focus on one essential question. For example, why did hip-hop spread in New York and other big cities? How does hip-hop influence fashion styles? What attracted white people to hip-hop? How does hip-hop culture influence consumer product and life style choices? How are hip-hop and the media connected?
How do certain hip-hip artists use positive messages to influence and inspire youth? (1-2 paragraphs)
I-Search Paper Expectations
Research: You must include all the required sources in a meaningful way show the connections between persuasion and hip-hop. Your paper must have a clear question (thesis or topic) that describes what you want to learn.
Format: Your 3-4 page paper must include the required parts of the I-Search listed in the Guidelines above. Each part must reflect a real attempt at in-depth thought.
Neatness: Your typewritten paper should be free of grammatical and structural errors through extensive proofreading. (12 pt/double spaced, standard margins, etc.)
Deadlines: The draft of your research topic and question is due in one week 1. The draft of your research process is due in 2 weeks; the draft of what you have learned and what this means to me is due in 3 weeks; the final list of your references is due in weeks. The final paper is due in 4weeks. (this will break the project into junks and help you with a timeline, for planning your work) Citations: You must use a minimum of 4 sources of information. One must be a personal interview with an "expert" on your topic and three must be from a book, reference book, magazine article or an online Website - Do not plagiarize, please cite any sources where you obtain your information from.
This unit is intended to introduce students to the concept of American democracy and the United States Constitution. The original audience for the unit is high school aged United States History students. Students at this level have previously studied United States History. The hope is that this unit will approach the idea of democracy from a few unique perspectives; first looking at what defines "democracy" and "successful democracies", second exploring the intentions of governments in general, third comparing possible democratic styles that America didn't adopt, and fourth rating the successfulness of our American democracy. In so doing, students will be given the opportunity to reflect upon the democracy in which they live. The key question posed is "are we a successful democracy?" The unit makes a comprehensive study of the question by recreating the conventional context in which our democratic system is studied, making it a global comparative study that addresses both past and present perspectives. In this way teachers may teach democracy outside of the bubble of the American past and appeal to the desires of students to create a relevant and present-focused discussion on topics previously considered archaic and extraneous.
America is an idea. Not only is it an idea, it is a collective system of beliefs that is shared and reinforced by the people who live within the country's physical boundaries. While every citizen may not be in total agreement with his or her neighbor on the fine print of the American idea, the fundamental foundation of what it means to be American is an idea into which all Americans have invested and within whose parameters they are willing to live their lives. America, then, is a very strong and deeply rooted idea that has existed for centuries and shows no sign of dissipating in the centuries to come.
What are the essential elements of this idea? They must be numerous so that they give a well-defined characterization of America. At the same time they must be few so that there is a greater chance that all Americans will agree on them. They must be specific so that people will have a better understanding of what it means to be American. But they must also be general so that many different personal feelings can be encompassed under them. These elements must also be comprehensible by people who do not live under the American system of beliefs; that is to say, people who do not necessarily identify as believing the American idea can still identify the idea as American.
It is not the intention of this unit to explore all of the essential elements of America. Instead, the purpose is to look at one element - democracy. While not every American will unanimously agree that pure democracy is an essential element of the American idea, it must be remembered that pure democracy is not being discussed here and that democracy in some form would be an accepted element. One of the difficulties that many Americans face is to have to defend democracy as an element of the American idea without a clear understanding of what American democracy truly is. Students in our schools are constantly told to uphold the ideal of American democracy and to play their appropriate role within it, but these definitions are frequently unclear to many. With this in mind, the objective here is to properly define democracy within the bounds of the American experiment using both scholarly and comparative methods of definition and also to determine the level of success with which America has carried out its democratic aims.
While many people in many languages have tried to conceive of a useful and applicable definition for democracy over the centuries, it is to the Greeks that we turn. The creators of the first democratic experiments, the Greeks combined two of their words - "demo" meaning "people" and "kratos" meaning "power" - to form the "demokratia" that describes their system of government. The city-states in ancient Greece practiced a form of government in which the powers of the state were derived from the people living in that state. Without delving into the varied aspects of the many Greek city-states, the reason this definition is useful is that it anchors the discussion of what a democracy can be; classical democracy is a system of government where the powers of the state are derived from the people who live in that state.
The definition above may seem simplistic, but in many ways it is the basis of democratic thought. Robert Dahl states quite eloquently in his book On Democracy "…we use the word democracy to refer both to a goal or ideal and to an actuality that is only a partial attainment of the goal." 1 In much the same way, power derived from the people is a primary goal of democracy just as much as it alone is not enough to consider a state wholly democratic.
One modern definition of democracy sets out a list of criteria that proves that the system of government in place allows for the people to be the driving force behind their government. These five parameters create a framework within which a society must function in order to consider itself democratic. In list form they are: effective participation, voting equality, enlightened understanding, control of the agenda, inclusion of adults. 2 Of course, these standards have only recently been set forth, decades later than the establishment of many accepted democracies. However the criteria are helpful in that they provide attainable goals for democratizing countries and guidelines for helping to strengthen weakening and static democracies.
Democracy as it is popularly defined today also consists of a set of institutions that encourage opportunities for people to participate within the structure of their government. 3 The six political institutions that a large-scale (country-level) democracy requires are: elected officials; free, fair, and frequent elections; freedom of expression; alternative sources of information; associational autonomy (the right to form organizations such as political parties); inclusive citizenship (universal adult suffrage). 4 Without going into exhaustive detail of each, the institutions are meant to help fulfill the criteria of what a successful democracy should be. It is important to note the distinction here; listed above are the institutions within a government structure that encourage the "demokratia" - power derived from the people. Each of these institutions executes at least one of Dahl's five criteria for a democratic process.
The Purposes of Democratic Government
With democracy and success both provisionally defined, it falls upon philosophers and politicians to illuminate the purpose of forming democratic governments. The Greek city-states created their democracies to invest the people with the power of effectively running society. With the fall of democracy in Greece came the rise of republics in Rome. In contrast to the word "democracy", the Roman republic derived its name from "res" meaning "thing" and "publicus" meaning "of the people". While power is a thing, the word "republic" grants a wider range of objects of which the people hold sway. A republic ends up being a governmental body that represents the will of the people; no longer are the people the power, their representation takes that place.
Many people equate both the Greek idea of democracy and the Roman republic as having a similar purpose. Whether considering the assemblies of Athenians or the Roman Senate, both bodies meant to provide liberty to their people as best as they could. Taking this into account, what can be said to be the purpose of governments in general and democratic governments more specifically? What institutions guarantee liberty to a people? Can liberty be guaranteed?
When writing the US Constitution, the Framers set out specific goals for the document. The preamble to the Constitution outlines clearly the purposes of creating a governmental system in America. The six objects for creating an American government are to: form a more perfect union; establish justice; ensure domestic tranquility; provide for the common defense; promote the general welfare; secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity. Here, it seems, is a clear summary of what a democratic government should aim to do. But how did the Framers choose these six goals for their government?
Arguably, the Framers of the US Constitution did not have a good living example of a democratic government from which to work. 5 This being the case, much of what is written about democratic governments comes after the Constitution was written and is based somewhat on what was observed in American democratic practice. Even the Federalist Papers, widely accepted as great essays on democracy, were written either in defense of principles already outlined in the Constitution or as guides to aid interpretation of the document. If this is the case, why do we look to these authors for their explanations of governmental theory and philosophy?
John Stuart Mill
Once the American democracy was formed, many other countries soon fell into their own forms of democratic government. With all of these new democracies floating around, each of which had its own particular idiosyncrasies, it stood to reason that intellectuals would start to comment upon what was desirable and objectionable about these governments. Men such as John Stuart Mill seized the opportunity to help governments strive toward ideal administration of their societies by commenting on what they perceived to be the primary objects of governments.
In his On Liberty, Mill gives a charged summary of the interplay between government and individuals and the roles of each to ensure that the integrity of liberty is maintained. "The maxims are, first, that the individual is not accountable to society for his actions, in so far as these concern the interests of no person but himself….Secondly, that for such actions as are prejudicial to the interests of others, the individual is accountable, and may be subjected either to social or to legal punishments, if society is of opinion that the one or the other is requisite for its protection." 6 This observation sets up the individual as the driving force in society, very much an ideal in line with our previous definition of the word.
However, Mill also poses interesting questions in regard to responsibility. One of the primary ideas in his essay is the concept of the prevention of harm. He presents several examples that oscillate between placing the onus on the individual or his government in preventing harm. In true philosophical fashion, he doesn't give a clear-cut resolution of his position, but he does illuminate a few quandaries: Where is responsibility in the law? Does it fall on the wrong-doer or the enabler? And finally, what role does the government have to protect you from yourself? 7 These issues are central to any study of government and especially to the delicate role of a democratic government in providing liberty while at the same time not taking it away. Dahl resolves this nicely saying, "Simply put, the issue is not whether a government can design all its laws so that none ever injures the interests of any citizen. No government, not even a democratic government, could uphold such a claim. The issue is whether in the long run a democratic process is likely to do less harm to the fundamental rights and interests of its citizens than any nondemocratic alternative." 8 This helps to more clearly focus the responsibility of a democratic government in its relation to its citizens.
Even though Mill presents preventing harm as a conundrum, he leans towards calling for democratic governments to be less restrictive. This is evidenced by his other main point: that the chief task of governments is to give parameters for people to solve their own problems. "…To secure as much of the advantages of centralized power and intelligence, as can be had without turning into governmental channels too great a proportion of the general activity, is one of the most difficult and complicated questions in the art of government." 9 In this statement, Mill warns against the tendency of federal systems of government - such as the United States - to treat the process of governing as a top-down, paternalistic exercise. Instead, governments should hold on to the ideals of democracy that allow for a bottom-up approach, fulfilling one of Dahl's criteria that the people set their own agendas in truly democratic governments.
Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, Federalist 9 and 10
Serving as perhaps the best commentary on the American democratic experiment are the Federalist Papers, penned in defense of ratification of the US Constitution in New York over the course of a year between 1787 and 1788. Both Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were key authors, along with John Jay. Madison - also known as the father of the Constitution - gave the most stirring justifications for ratification, but he also outlined many elements of the intentions of the Constitution that weren't explicit. In this way, Madison helped to define key aspects of the lasting legacy of the American democratic experiment, including the distinction that our democracy was in fact a confederate republic.
In Federalist 10, Madison clearly summarizes his views of government: "The protection of these faculties [the reason of man, his opinions, and his passions] is the first object of government." 10 While all at once a sweeping and general task, the protection of men's passions, opinions, and reasons is very close to Mill's argument that would be made over 70 years later. Mill cannot seem to give a concrete plan of action, but Madison, with Hamilton's help, elucidates how the American form of government proposed in the Constitution provides safeguards to curtail this problem.
As previously stated, the Framers of the US Constitution freely admitted to creating a government based on democratic principles but more closely resembling a republic. 11 The reason for this was both the size of the nation (population and area) and the existence of well-established state units within the national borders. A pure democracy as practiced by the Greeks would not be desirable under these circumstances, nor would it be possible to execute. The confederate republic model was adopted to address matters of fair representation of states and conflicting interests as well as the protection of minority rights (insomuch as they could be protected) from majority tyranny. 12 Both Hamilton and Madison verify that these issues are addressed - albeit with necessary imperfections - in the US Constitution.
In Federalist 9, Hamilton touts that the Constitution provides many mechanisms to safeguard the common people that were not thought possible in previous governmental systems. "The regular distribution of power into distinct departments; the introduction of legislative balances and checks; the institution of courts composed of judges holding their offices during good behavior; the representation of people in the legislature by deputies of their own election: these are wholly new discoveries, or have made their principal progress towards perfection in modern times." 13 Separation of powers, checks and balances, republicanism, popular sovereignty; these were all new ideas, and they help to promote effective participation according to Dahl's criteria. Furthermore, it proves that democratic ideals can be served on a large scale by a republican (representative) government, possibly better than a pure democracy could with similar constraints.
Madison, in response to Hamilton's essay discussed here, brings up what could be seen as a stopping point: factions within government that could promote tyranny of the majority. "The smaller the society," he says, "…the more easily [the majority] will concert and execute their plans of oppression." This presents a bleak message to many in favor of promoting democracy, and truly seems to be an argument against efforts of democratization. In his next breath, however, Madison provides hope: "Extend the sphere and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens; or if such a common motive exists, it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength and to act in unison with each other." 14 What can be seen here is the basis for creating a loyal opposition, a pluralist society that ensures opportunities for the inclusion of all citizens and their viewpoints at one time or another. 15
Shapiro and the Principle of Affected Interest
The definition of the loyal opposition in society is a group that is marginalized because of its minority status on an issue but still has options to participate because of the chance that they will become the majority on another issue. Because of this, citizens rarely opt out of participation in government action due to the chance that they will eventually be a part of the majority. When the system of loyal opposition is absent, the majority consistently negates the participation of the minority. Ian Shapiro very clearly states in Democratic Justice that encountering this situation in a supposedly democratic society is "unacceptable." 16 In fact, this situation could potentially cause a breakdown in democratic processes altogether.
When decisions are made that affect an entire group - whether that group is a small organization, a town, or a country - the decisions are called collective actions. There are a few ways to make collective actions, some more democratic than others. Dahl defines one democratic approach: "1) …before a law is enacted you and all other citizens will have an opportunity to make your views known. 2) You will be guaranteed opportunities for discussion, deliberation, negotiation, and compromise that in the best circumstances might lead to a law that everyone will find satisfactory. 3) In the more likely event that unanimity cannot be achieved, the proposed law that has the greatest number of supporters will be enacted." 17 This process covers two of his democratic criteria solidly - voting equality and enlightened understanding - and if it is repeated enough times for a variety of issues it will ultimately allow for loyal opposition as well which then includes effective participation in the list.
Some collective actions are by definition very undemocratic and so Shapiro introduces a rule of thumb to encourage more democratic collective action. Using the Greek definition of "democracy" and the Latin definition of "republic" simultaneously, we notice that they both share "people" as a root word; both forms of government rely on the populous to exist. In short, "…everyone affected by the operation of a particular domain of civil society should be presumed to have a say in its governance." 18 This is the principle of affected interest. Affected interest changes collective actions into collective self-government. Having the people craft their decisions through democratic processes such as the one suggested above by Dahl crosses into the realm of self-government and leaves potential despotism and tyranny of the majority behind.
To briefly summarize, both in a democracy and a republic the purpose is to grant liberty to the people. While this might seem like an easy task, many factors including self-interest, despotism, and tyranny of the majority make it difficult to grant liberty to all of the people all of the time. A good government, then, pays attention to a few key points: trying to prevent harm; giving the people the right and opportunity to maneuver society; protecting the opinions and passions of humanity; creating a loyal opposition; allowing for collective self-government. Supported by the case of the United States, intellectuals have posited that a democratic-republic could potentially be the best way to serve the people's liberty considering all of these points. "Yet among the countries most comparable to the United States and where democratic institutions have long existed without breakdown, not one has adopted our American constitutional system." 19 For these countries that formed their democratic governments after 1789, what other options were more compelling?
What Options Do Democracies Have?
In his A Preface to Democratic Theory, Robert Dahl suggests that it is not the Constitution that has kept the United States democratic; instead, the inherent democratic spirit of its people has validated the existence of the US Constitution. 20 If that is the case - if a society such as the US is inherently democratic in nature - then why do societies feel the need to adopt and implement a standardized set of rules for carrying out their democratic aims? Furthermore, why are societies compelled to adhere to these rules, even (especially?) in times of crisis? The following looks at options that various countries have explored in order to create democratic governments and addresses the dilemma of what came first - democracy or government. 21
Written or Unwritten Constitution?
As proposed in the conundrum above, do societies that are inherently democratic and wish to live democratically need a written constitution? The short answer is no, because not all democratic systems have written constitutions. However, there are pros to writing down a society's intentions for founding a government. One obvious argument in favor of a physical document is that there is always going to be something to reference. Interpretation of a written document deals more in semantics than in intentions. Overall, written constitutions exist in an overwhelming majority of democratic states today and the phenomenon of unwritten constitutions stems from historical anomalies during the formation of the current government such as in Great Britain or Israel.
Direct or Representative Democracy?
Ancient Greek city-states such as Athens practiced a form of democracy known as "direct democracy", referring to the fact that decisions being made for the good of society were being made directly by the members of society in an open forum. "Representative democracy", on the other hand, presumes that citizens will elect representatives who will assemble apart from society at large to make decisions for the good of society, reporting back and keeping the interests of their constituents in mind. While it has been argued that representative democracy is inherently undemocratic - it takes final decision-making out of the hands of the people - arguments in favor of each option take into consideration the size of the state and the restrictive nature of assembly. In general, larger states with many people tend towards implementing representative democracies, allowing for town meetings at the local level to maintain the benefits of direct democracy. Small states and towns favor direct democracy because a smaller society creates a less restrictive environment. In both cases, universal suffrage helps to assure that the processes remain more democratic.
Federal or Unitary System?
A unitary system of government gives supreme legislative power to the central or national government. Contrarily, federal systems maintain the autonomy of smaller units within the nation (states, provinces, cantons, etc.) and national legislation cannot - within reason - be imposed on those units without the permission of the smaller government there. Usually a federal system is implemented when a nation is formed by unifying previously independent states into a confederation. Most modern democratic countries have unitary systems because the smaller regions within the nation were not used to self-government or were engineered without consideration of the interests of the populations within those boarders. The pros and cons of both systems are relative to the history of the individual nation and the previous autonomy of states within that nation.
Presidential or Parliamentary System?
The birth of the presidency (most famously practiced in America) was influenced by the British model of monarchical separation of powers - the monarch as executive, parliament as legislative, and the courts as judiciary. Each branch was independent of the other and possessed specific powers to check and balance each of the other branches. With the rebirth of Britain's constitution in the early 19 th century came the birth of the prime minister. Owing allegiance to and serving at the pleasure of the majority party in parliament, the prime minister is the figurehead in parliamentary systems. Although the role of a prime minister is similar to that of a president, the minister lacks separation from the legislative branch. The pros and cons of the two systems are relative to the political stability of the country in which they are implemented.
First-Past-the-Post or Proportional Representation?
In racing, the first person across the finish line wins. In first-past-the-post election systems, the candidate with the most votes wins the election. This consequentially sets up a majority/minority government - the winners and the losers. Proportional representation allows for many different parties to share a proportion of the power in government, hence the name. For example, if a political party wins 30 percent of the popular vote, 30 percent of the seats in the legislature will be filled by members of that party. This system brings in players with varied interests into the political arena, validating the agendas of smaller interest groups in society and creating an equal opportunity for the agenda of the government to shift. The number of political parties in a nation is a direct result of implementing a FPTP (first-past-the-post) or PR (proportional representation) system as evidenced below.
Two-Party or Multiparty System?
A FPTP system will generally favor two parties vying for control of the government. PR systems allow for many parties - three, four, or more - to take part in the process of governing a country; PR systems also encourage coalition building which highlights the commonalities of competing parties. Some pros and cons: 1) two-party systems can result in deadlock when one party controls the legislature and another party controls the executive branch; 2) multiparty systems can result in gridlock when parties refuse to form coalitions and alliances are broken; 3) two-party systems create efficient governments where the majority party's agenda can be addressed with little interference from the minority; 4) multiparty systems allow minority parties to be real players in proposing and implementing legislation, keeping constituents from many corners happy. With this in mind, nations looking to move towards democracy need to assess the existence of differing interests in society before deciding to implement FPTP or PR systems of government.
Unicameral or Bicameral Legislature?
Just as a unicycle has one wheel and a bicycle two, unicameral legislatures are composed of one house whereas bicameral legislatures are composed of two houses. Separation within the legislative branch of government is not a necessity. For the most part, federal systems favor bicameral legislatures and unitary systems favor unicameral legislatures. The reason for this stems from the autonomy given to states in a federal system, requiring that the smaller entities within the nation have the opportunity to represent themselves fairly in government at the national level. Unitary systems can streamline their legislative processes by passing legislation through only one set of representatives; in unitary systems, the national interest is arguably everybody's interest. In short, bicameralism is only an asset if there are two levels of interest - the states versus the nation as a whole.
Equality in Representation or Not?
Arguably, the most democratic way of distributing power in government is to grant each citizen the same ability to cast a vote and have that vote recognized. "One man, one vote" as it is traditionally termed helps to ensure that all citizens are equally represented in the legislature. To use America as an example, the House of Representatives determines state representation based on the number of citizens living in each state. States are proportionally represented according to population; less populated states have fewer representatives than states with a greater population. This seems fair, but it gives larger entities more power, making automatic minorities out of smaller entities. A way to solve this is by introducing non-proportional representation as the US does in the Senate. Each entity within the nation gets the same number of representatives regardless of population. While this may seem more equal than the previous example, it robs citizens in larger states from the protection of "one man, one vote"; citizens in smaller states could get anywhere from 2 to 200 votes for every citizen's vote in a larger state. While fair does not always equal democratic, the question remains about whose interests are being protected when unequal representation is employed.
The Results of the American Democratic Experiment
America's constitution looks very different from most other democratic nations today. Assuming the vast array of options available to democracies and the myriad combinations possible, "democracy" can be many different things at the same time for different nations. The question begs to be asked, however: how democratic can any national truly be? Robert Dahl hazards an answer in On Democracy, "In almost all, perhaps all, organizations everywhere there is some room for some democracy; and in almost all democratic countries there is considerable room for more democracy." 22 With this in mind, how democratic can the American system of government be considered as it stands today?
The Electoral and Representative Processes
The American system of representation developed as a response to the large population and area of the country. The Constitutional Convention over 200 years ago in Philadelphia tried to build in safeguards against ordinary citizens electing unqualified officials by providing for indirect election of Senators and the President. As the American voter has become more able to educate him or herself when it comes to candidates and as the government moved through the Progressive Era of the early 20 th century towards inclusion and transparency, the Constitution changed to include the direct election of Senators. As America decides whether to bring the election of the President down to the popular level, it is important to remember that representative governments constructed with the proper provisions for inclusion can enhance the evolution of a democratic state. "What matters is that, through these public elections…: the public good is achieved, citizen preferences are represented, governments become accountable, citizen participation in political life is maximized, economic equality is enhanced, rationality is implemented, economic conditions improve, and so on." 23 As long as the electorate controls the evolution of government through the election process, democracy is in action.
Judicial Review of Law
The judicial branch of the government in America was intended to be a small voice in the large national government. Tocqueville makes light of the role of the courts in American society, claiming that all people would look to the judiciary as a last resort for solving problems; legislatures were much more effective at preventing harm than the judiciary. 24 Very early on, the Supreme Court advocated itself not only as a tribunal for when government goes sour, but also as a review board to check up on the laws created by Congress. Judicial Review has manifested itself as both the voice of the people against a tyrannical legislature and the voice of the government in its efforts to protect the long-term interests of its citizens. The allegedly unbiased court draws its power from the fact that both the people and the other branches of government respect its verdicts. This can arguably be seen as a testament to the ability of the court to uphold the democratic ideals that both sides value. Once the judiciary veers from this course, it is possible to think that the country would retaliate by restructuring the institution to reflect more democratic aims.
The Amendment Process
In order for democracy to evolve in America, the Constitution must be a living document. The amendment process - spearheaded by the adoption of the Bill of Rights after the Constitutional Convention - ensures that the American system of government can change to address the needs of its citizens and to approach a more democratic ideal. "To promise democratic rights in writing, in law, or even in a constitutional document is not enough. The rights must be effectively enforced and effectively available to citizens in practice." 25 This statement can help explain why the amendment process is so difficult; for America to provide the rights protected in the Constitution, it has to have the ability and desire to do so. Many original elements in the Constitution such as slavery, suffrage, and civil rights were undemocratic and needed to be amended. However, changing the Constitution on a whim negates the weight of the document. Long debates, campaigns, and other democratic processes help to increase the significance of the final outcome - the amendment - and to ensure that the rights requested will be guaranteed.
Political Parties and Other Institutions
James Madison was the earliest critic of splintering the American people into interest groups labeled as political parties. He believed the institution would tear the nation into factions incapable of compromising for the common good. As the government grew older, as citizens took sides in political debates, and as political parties became an institution in every sense of the word, Madison reneged on his previous assumptions. As Robert Dahl asserted in his primary criticism of Madison's early notion, as long as a loyal opposition exists political parties are a good thing for governments to have. At their best, they keep the populace informed, active, and excited, providing an outlet between elections for mobilizing ideas and resources. At their worst, they are mired in shady business and prevent transparency in the workings of government. 26 Reform efforts have centered upon monetary issues in the hope that clean money will make for clean politicking. The reality is that interest groups serve many different interests; all subjective and all falling on the shaky spectrum of good and bad.
The intention of this unit is to serve as an alternative study of the United States Constitution in an 11 th grade American History course. The curriculum in Philadelphia provides American History at three grades levels: 5 th, 8 th, and 11 th. The belief is that teachers will increase the intensity of the coursework and move from a surface treatment of topics and concepts to a more in-depth study of America on a global scale. To put it succinctly, 5 th grade history addresses the "what and how", 8 th grade addresses the "why", and 11 th grade asks "what's the significance?" A critical inquiry allows students to delve into the significance of several topics surrounding the need for government and the structure of democracy. In this way, the significance of the US Constitution can be discussed and assessed.
Upon completing this unit, students should understand several concepts: why societies create government structures, what it means to have and implement a democratic government, the wide spectrum of democracies that exist in the world, and the specific construction of the American constitutional democracy as it exists today. As students go through the unit it is expected that they will come back to the focusing question "are we a successful democracy?" In this way, students will constantly connect the different concepts learned in order that they may reach a specific goal. While other interesting knowledge will be picked up, the purpose of the unit is to test the validity of the idea that America is the great democratic experiment and that our longevity is a testament to our success. By asking the right questions, students will become critical of popular American thought that tends to look at our democracy in a vacuum and use comparative methods to rate our democratic system against other established democracies and scholarly criteria of successful democracies. This also introduces the concepts of bias and propaganda, although such topics will not be specifically addressed in the body of the unit.
The culmination of this unit will be in the form of a report card on democracies. Just as a report card in school is a summation of progress for the year to our students, this report card will serve as a way to rate the progress of our American democratic experiment. It is essential that students remember that our way of life is always in flux, that they should not take for granted the stability of today because it was born of the chaos of yesterday and is leading us towards the uncertainty of tomorrow. Also, by treating our democracy as a case study in the grander spectrum of democratic societies the world over, students reinforce the notion that we do not live in a bubble, that our decisions affect others and that the actions of others affect our society. By taking the study of the US Constitution out of its traditional vacuum, teachers can trend towards teaching American History through a global lens. This allows students to be critical, proud, embarrassed, educated, and ultimately active American citizens.
Because the purpose of this unit focuses around a critical inquiry, the strategies used to address the objectives compel students to ask questions and - upon coming up with an answer - question those answers in an effort to get to the root of the focusing question. In order to approach a suitable answer in reference to whether America is a successful democracy, many different concepts will be introduced with varied points of view expressed by several different authors. While lecture will certainly be employed, it is essential that students have experience grappling with period and contemporary texts. What follows are some strategies with specific resources mentioned to help teachers match relevant material to the desired concept.
Matching and Categorizing Democracy Criteria and Institutional Requirements
In order for students to truly grasp the meaning of American democracy they must be able to define "democracy" and give examples of how America has adapted that concept. While part of the unit will focus on activating the prior knowledge of students in regards to what we call democracy today, the main focus is on using criteria developed by the political scientist Robert Dahl to categorize American institutions and rhetoric as more or less democratic. Dahl gives two methods of measurement that are ideally combined to generate a more comprehensive spectrum of democratic potential and practice. These two measurements - discussed here in the rationale and as well as in On Democracy - are the basis for establishing a working definition of democracy for the purposes of this unit.
While Dahl's democratic criteria and institutional requirements are perfect for helping to organize students' thoughts on American Constitutional democracy, many students need better tools for understanding the references made by Dahl. For example, one of Dahl's criteria is effective participation. Explaining this concept to students might reach some of them, but many need a more concrete example to really comprehend what effective participation encompasses in a democracy. Thus Dahl's other set of standards - the institutional requirements of democratic countries - provides models of what concrete governmental practices help to fulfill the five criteria. As per our example, effective participation can be measured by a government's willingness to provide freedom of expression to its people.
Linking these two sets of criteria together offers students a different way of approaching a potentially confusing topic. Taking the conceptual principles of ideally democratic governments and bolstering that information with concrete institutional examples gives students the opportunity to go further in their task of defining democracy. They not only have surface standards, they also have the tools necessary to critically look at their own democracy and other established and burgeoning democracies. They can use these tools to gain perspective on how governments build either restrictive or permissive democracies and on the consequences of such choices.
Jigsaw of Intentions and Purposes of Government and Democracy
Engaging with sources from any given time period enhances students' understanding of the time period. This blanket statement can be proven true or false depending upon the method in which those sources are introduced to a class. If students are simply given period literature with no context and no purpose, chances are that no understanding will take place. If, on the other hand, the period texts being used are set up as competing viewpoints on a single topic then students are required to truly engage with the material and use critical thinking skills to form their own opinions on the subject. A jigsaw is one effective way to divide the task of reading many different texts while also requiring students to interact with all of the different viewpoints offered by the chosen pieces.
Considering the topic of the intentions and purposes of government and democracy, the task of providing competing views seems fairly easy; teachers may choose from many authors and pieces. However it is important to address a wide array of student needs and to appeal to different levels of comprehension in the classroom. Jigsaws allow teachers to select text excerpts of varying length and difficulty so that high achieving students may be challenged and low-performing students can be brought up to a proficient level. It is sometimes helpful to use both text and visuals to appeal to different types of learners within the same classroom. For this topic, finding a visual proves difficult, but there are many passages that provide varied levels of vocabulary to engage every learner.
The focusing question of the jigsaw will be "why do societies form governments?" Excerpts will be taken from Plato's Republic, John Stuart Mill's On Liberty, Madison and Hamilton's conversation in Federalist Papers 9 and 10, and Abraham Lincoln's immortal speech The Gettysburg Address. A more detailed description of which segments should be used can be found in the Classroom Activities section. Following from the focusing question, groups of students will be asked to look closely at their assigned text and decide not only what makes society want to organize a government according to the author, but also what responsibilities a government has to the people it governs. Once each group has worked through their own excerpts, the students will switch and share information from their analysis with students who analyzed a different piece. This jigsaw provides a well-rounded perspective on the topic and helps the class to come close to answering the focusing question by employing all of the varying viewpoints in the texts.
Position Papers on Comparative Democratic Models
As proven by the Frayer model for defining words and concepts, people learn about things by identifying what it is and what it isn't. By the end of this unit, students should be able to judge levels of democracy not only by identifying characteristics of their own American democracy but also by examining what the American experiment lacks compared to other democracies existing in the world today. The position papers ask students to use one of the comparisons discussed in the rationale above and debate the pros and cons of the options presented. Furthermore, students will be asked their opinion as to whether or not America made a good decision in choosing to pursue one of the options over the other.
The paper will be formatted in five-paragraph form in order to maintain the expectation that high school students should be writing concisely and clearly with limited space on a given topic. The first paragraph will introduce the two options and present a thesis as to which of the two is a more democratic choice. The second and third paragraphs outline the pros and cons of the two choices, making sure to highlight specific examples of how each option is implemented in America and other democratic countries today. The fourth paragraph introduces the student's opinion of which alternative promotes a more democratic form of government. Lastly, the fifth paragraph summarizes the arguments made in the essay, reflecting upon America's chosen style of democracy.
Position papers allow students to exercise their critical thinking, research, and persuasive essay skills all at once. As with many of the other strategies discussed in this section, the position paper forces students to interact with the material presented in class through lecture and readings. The added bonus is that students are also asked to form their own opinions, incorporating the element of personal investment that can help to hook students who would otherwise find the material boring and out of their grasp. This topic specifically brings in another component of Social Studies education - connecting past events to the present and future. Allowing students to comment on what they see in the world today and validating their opinions because they are backed up with research sets a positive tone of acceptance and scholarship in the classroom.
Children's Book on the Results of the American Democratic Experiment
One of the true tests for having learned something is being able to teach it to others. Many students at the high school level are looking to create a bridge between the confusing language used in many textbooks and the simpler language that teachers use to make the material accessible. Having older students generate a children's book on what they learn is a good way to let students build that language bridge by themselves. They learn to convey an idea concisely and to use illustrations to supply nuances that the simple language can't always translate. This results in higher level thinking on the part of the students writing and illustrating the book and can also be useful for elementary teachers if the final products are shared with younger students.
The children's book assignment has students looking at the current results of America's democratic experiment and deciding where the institutions and processes we practice fall on the democratic spectrum. Using Dahl's criteria as a comparison, students will consider how Judicial Review, political parties, elections and representatives, and the amendment process all either help or hinder the growth of democracy in America. Students will be separated into groups and each group will have an institution with which to work. The goal is to describe the role of the institution in American government today as clearly as possible (illustrations should be used) and then to judge whether the institution facilitates the democratic process or encumbers movement towards a more democratic state. The language should be accessible to younger audiences and students should create their pages with the hope of teaching American government to a kindergarten or first grade class.
Having students work in groups to complete their pages allows for many different viewpoints to be considered for the opinion portion of the book. Students are not likely to engage in an activity where they are forced to regurgitate information that they have already learned - even if it is a good way to assess what they know. Taking the assignment a step further and asking for students to opine on what they have observed in the workings of the government brings interest to the fore. As an assessment tool, the opinion portion of the children's book allows teachers to see where the "public opinion" of the class lies and provides an opportunity to discuss the differences between how the US Constitution has outlined the role of the government and how a presidential administration might interpret the role of the government. The material brought up in the book is also a good way to bridge into election year conversation or to debate the merits of deliberative democracy (see Fishkin resource in bibliography).
Report Card on American Democracy
Perhaps the most important objective of this unit is to assess the success of the American democratic experiment. The reasoning behind this is not to criticize America's government; instead, students should learn to analyze the society in which they live with a clear picture of the rest of the world in front of them. The intention of the unit is to look at the roots of democracy, the first modern democracy, and more recent democracies with the object of ascertaining how close modern states come to reaching democratic ideals. While some of the assessment will be comparative by nature, American democracy can and should be judged against its own principles and how well it executes the democratic standards it sets for itself.
As with any assessment tool, students should understand that there are two ways to measure something: group comparison and personal growth. Both forms of assessment have their merits, but when referring back to the focusing question of the unit, "are we a successful democracy?" students should decide whether it is fair to pit America against other countries or if America should be judged by how well it meets scholarly agreed upon standards. A good compromise is to rate a few democratic nations separately against the standards with the intention of placing all of the countries on a "spectrum" of democracy. The appendix to the Democracy Sourcebook gives a few good ways to measure the democratic level of an individual state. A sample report card to be used with this unit is included in the appendices below. If the attached report card is used, students should be encouraged to write an essay detailing the explanations they give for the grades and how that reflects upon the democratic nature of the country in question.
The greatest skill that teachers can impart to their students is the ability to look at the world with a critical eye, assess biases, and make informed decisions with the materials at hand. Just as students are graded at the end of a term or year, so too should our government. It is important to remember that the objective of grading is to isolate things done well and things that need improvement in order to better focus the next term or year of growth. Today's students are the policy makers of tomorrow and should be encouraged to critically assess the direction in which our country is headed with a plan in mind for maintaining and improving democratic functionality.
What follows are lessons that serve to bring the unit to life. These lessons are a snapshot and do not take the teacher from the beginning to the end of the unit. The first lesson of the unit is included here. Teachers should format the class to the personal needs of the students and should feel free to add or subtract any step in the process. Other possible lesson ideas are addressed in the Strategies section of this unit.
Lesson One: Defining Democracy
The objective of this lesson is for students to come up with their own definition of "democracy" and to compare that definition with several historical and scholarly models of democracies in practice. This lesson serves as the introduction to the unit and will feature reciprocal teaching techniques as well as lecture. The lesson should last for about two 45-minute periods. The standards addressed in this lesson are 5.1C, 5.1E, 5.3A, 8.3B, 8.3C, 8.4B, and 8.4C.
Pre-class assignments are meant to activate prior knowledge in the students. The obvious pre-class question for the first day of this lesson asks students "what is a democracy?" Students will provide a variety of answers, at which time a working definition which the majority of the class may agree upon should be created. This definition will probably resemble the governmental structure of the US. The Greek definition of "democracy" along with the Athenian example should then be shared with the class. Because the wording is simple in nature, students should be asked what "power derived from the people" entails. A discussion will ensue; midway through the discussion, the definition of "republic" should be shared along with the Roman example of a Senate. With both democracy and republic defined, students should make arguments for which model best fits their agreed upon definition of democracy from the beginning of class. After a short informal debate, it should be revealed to students that America was founded on the principles of both democracy and republicanism. According to the students' definition and with the knowledge that America was intended to be a democratic-republic, students should be asked what elements a modern democratic nation should possess. The compilation of this list, whether as a whole class or in small groups, should go to the end of the period. Homework in preparation for tomorrow should be to have students give justification for why each element on the list helps foster democratic ideals.
Day two begins with a review of last night's homework. As students are sharing their justifications, each element of democracy from yesterday's discussion should be put up on one side of the board. After this is complete, Robert Dahl's 5 democratic criteria should be written on the other side of the board. Students should be asked to try to define Dahl's criteria and a more formal definition should be provided by the teacher. At this time, Dahl's 6 Institutional Requirements should also be shared. A good activity to help link the criteria to the requirements is to have all of the criteria written out on the board and have students match the requirements to each of the criteria. The requirements serve as good practical definitions for the criteria and give concrete examples of how democracies can carry out democratic aims. Please refer to Dahl's On Democracy or the report card in the appendix for information on how the criteria and requirements match up. The matching game is the closing activity of the second class period. Once Dahl's criteria have been outlined and defined, students should be ready to judge how well modern democracies fulfill their democratic goals in practice.
Lesson Two: Jigsaw on Government
The objective of this lesson is to introduce students to the varied reasons people choose to form governments and nations. By employing the jigsaw method, students will be asked to engage with primary sources and draw comparative conclusions over the four excerpts used. Ideally this lesson would last only one 45-minute period, but different levels of learners may require the jigsaw to stretch over two 45-minute periods. The standards addressed in this lesson are 5.1A, 5.1C, 5.1E, and 5.1H.
To start the lesson, students should be asked the focusing question of the jigsaw: "why do societies form governments?" Once sufficient discussion of responses has been completed and a list of possible answers compiled, the class will divide into four or eight small groups (preferably four students). These are the primary jigsaw groups. Each group will be given one of the four following excerpts to read: 1) A paraphrase of the opening paragraphs to Book IV of Plato's Republic (discusses the point of creating city-states in Greece); 2) The 1 st paragraph of Federalist 9 and the 6 th paragraph of Federalist 10 (asserts that the US Constitution protects citizens from themselves); 3) The "Harm Principle" from chapter one of John Stuart Mill's On Liberty (proposes that the prevention of harm is the responsibility of the government as well as the individual); 4) Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address (espouses the higher call of governments and citizens to be responsible for the happiness of all people).
Several common questions should be answered by each group. The questions: 1) Who is writing this? When? What is the context? 2) What words or phrases jump out at you? Why? 3) What is being said about the role of common people? How can you tell? 4) What is being said about the role of governments or people in charge? How can you tell? 5) How would you answer the focusing question after reading this excerpt? Once these questions have been answered in the primary groups, one member from each of the 4 groups should come together to form the secondary groups - a group where one student is the expert on his or her source. The same five questions will be answered, but discussion will ensue as to how each source approaches the focusing question. Once students have finished sharing and discussing, they should begin the homework assignment which will be shared out the next day: write a paragraph discussing whether the authors of these sources are addressing the democratic ideals we defined in class with their ideas. A great way to cap the lesson is to show School House Rock, The Preamble to the class as a lesson on what the Founders actually decided to announce as the purposes for forming the United States government.
Lesson Three: Creating a Children's Book
The objective of this lesson is to have students comprehend the results of democracy in America and to judge whether those institutions facilitate or encumber the growth of democracy in the nation. This lesson could take anywhere from one to three 45-minute periods to complete depending on the level of the learners and the desire of the teacher to foster creativity. It is the only lesson in the unit that will appeal to more visual learners. The standards addressed in this unit are 5.1E and 5.3A.
Students should start the lesson off by answering the pre-class question: "Is America becoming more or less democratic as time goes on? Why or Why not?" There will undoubtedly be two camps with varying explanations for their answers and these should be discussed briefly. A class handout should be made with the information contained in the rationale of this unit under the heading "The Results of the American Democratic Experiment". Students should take turns reading the sections aloud and discussing the implications of the different institutions of our modern democracy and whether or not these things lead us to be more or less democratic. Once it is clear that the students understand the institutions and their role in adding or subtracting from democratic aims, the activity of creating a children's book can be introduced.
The students should create the books in small groups (no more than three students). Because there are four results (electoral process, judicial review, amendments, and political parties) there should be about 12 students working on each book - three students in each of four groups; more than one book can be made in larger classes. Each small group is responsible for 2 pages of the book, text and illustrations. The first page should explain the institution in words that a kindergartener or first grader would understand. For example: "Political parties are groups of people with lots in common. They think the same way about how Americans should live, work, and play. People who get chosen to lead the country come from one of two parties - the Republicans (elephants) or the Democrats (donkeys)." The second page gives the group a chance to decide whether the institution is helping or hindering democracy in America. For example: "Many people like belonging to political parties, but sometimes not everyone gets invited to join. Not everybody likes the elephants and the donkeys, so people who don't have a party to join get left out of making decisions. This isn't very fair and some people even think that the political parties should be gotten rid of all together!" Students should be encouraged to come up with their own opinions for this piece. Once each group has written and illustrated their pages, the book can be bound together by the teacher and should be read as a children's book, first to the class so that they can learn from each other and second to a group of younger students (if the possibility presents itself). The book is the culminating assignment of the lesson and so any homework given would be reflection upon what was learned by the experience.
"Appendix: Observing Democracies." In The Democracy Sourcebook, edited by Robert
Dahl, Ian Shapiro, and Jose Antonio Cheibub, 527-534. Cambridge: The MIT Press,
A quick overview of different methods for rating the successfulness of democratic governments
Dahl, Robert A. How Democratic Is the American Constitution? New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2002.
A study of the successes and failures of the American democratic experiment
—. On Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
An accessible textbook treatment of democracy and its varied applications
Fishkin, James S. The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1995.
Explores the processes of deliberative democracy as well as provides a model
Shapiro, Ian. Democratic Justice. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
Used to illuminate the principle of affected interest and collective self-government
—. "Introduction: The Federalist Then and Now." In The Federalist Papers, edited by Ian Shapiro. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
An overview of the use of the Federalist Papers by the framers of foreign democracies
—. "Tyranny and Democracy: Reflections on Some Recent Literature." Government and
Opposition 43, no. 3 (Summer 2008): 486-497.
A review of two books on democratic theory and practice
Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers. Edited by
Clinton Rossiter. New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc., 1961.
A pocket edition of the essays with a summary of each essay in the table of contents
Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address."
http://americancivilwar.com/north/lincoln.html (Accessed August 13, 2008).
A website with a transcription of Lincoln's famous Civil War speech
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
A philosophical discussion of the purposes of government in relation to personal liberties
Plato. The Republic. Translated by R.E. Allen. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
An accessible translation of Plato's classic work on government
This unit requires the ability to create handouts both of excerpts of the rationale above and also of select excerpts from student resources included in the bibliography. For writing the position papers, students should have access to the internet and/or a library for researching their comparisons; photocopies of portions of both of the Dahl books would also suffice. The children's book requires art materials such as large paper and markers/crayons as well as a way to bind the book (yarn or staples).
Model Position Paper: Written or Unwritten Constitutions
The formation of a democratic government is a laborious and highly nuanced process that can take months or years to complete. Decisions must be made on many fronts, including the roles of government officials, criteria for citizenship, and rights guaranteed to citizens. Once the process is over, a decision must be made as to whether or not to write out the constitution - rules - for all to see. In other words, should the government be encouraged to follow the letter of the law or the spirit of the law? The most democratic option is to write out the constitution of a nation so that all people have access and can refer to the laws and regulations of the country at any time for any reason.
The question may be posed: what is so undemocratic about adopting an unwritten constitution? It can be argued that by not writing out the laws of a land the populace is excluded from engaging with the laws; they either do not know or cannot understand their rights without the proper training. This creates an elitist society. On the other hand, without written words a populace could interpret the meaning or intention of the law very liberally if they wished to do so. Unwritten constitutions are much more open to interpretation. Great Britain is a good example of a functioning democracy with an unwritten constitution.
Written constitutions are as plain as black and white. However, that is not to say that the written word doesn't provide a grey area of interpretation. In the example of the US Constitution, people who follow the laws as written regardless of context are called "strict constructionists" and people who take the evolution of political culture into consideration are called "loose constructionists". In this way, having a written constitution hardly circumvents conflict and interpretation. One unequivocal argument in favor of written constitutions is their permanence; they become canonical and revered by the populace and widely disseminated throughout the masses. This dissemination encourages democratic practices.
When considering all of the pros and cons of both options, it is easy to see why written constitutions are more democratic. First and foremost, the written word is easily accessible to the electorate, especially if it is allowed to be printed in many languages and is taught in schools (as in America). Second, unwritten constitutions leave too much room for politicians and other "higher-ups" to take advantage of the common man with underhanded interpretations. The written word - just like a signed contractual agreement - helps to protect the rights of citizens.
In conclusion, written constitutions are more democratic than unwritten constitutions for many reasons. Some of these are the accessibility, permanence, and easy interpretation of the written word. Also, unwritten constitutions can tend to create elitists societies where only a few high-level officials in the government have access to true understanding of the laws. America's choice to publish a written constitution proves that the government created by the Founding Fathers was committed to democratic principles and practices.
Report Card for Democratic States
Addressing Pennsylvania State Standards
The Social Studies standards for the state of Pennsylvania cross four different areas of study - Civics and Government, Economics, Geography, and History. This unit deals mostly in Civics and Government due to the focus on the US Constitution and comparative government studies.
Standard 5.1A - Principles and Documents of Government; Purpose of Government
Standard 5.1C - Principles and Documents of Government; Principles and Ideals that
Standard 5.1E - Principles and Documents of Government; Documents and Ideals
Shaping United States Government
Standard 5.1H - Principles and Documents of Government; Contributions of Framers of
Standard 5.2E - Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship; Ways Citizens Influence
Decisions and Actions of Government
Standard 5.3A - How Government Works; Structure, Organization, and Operation of
Standard 5.4A - How International Relationships Function; How Customs and
Traditions Influence Governments
Standard 5.4C - How International Relationships Function; Impact of the United States
on Political Ideals of Nations
Standard 8.1D - Historical Analysis and Skills Development; Historical Research
Standard 8.3B - United States History; Documents, Artifacts, and Historical Places
Standard 8.3C - United States History; Influences of Continuity and Change
Standard 8.4B - World History; Documents, Artifacts, and Historical Places
Standard 8.4C - World History; Influences of Continuity and Change
1. Dahl, On Democracy, 83.
2. Ibid., 37-8.
3. "Appendix: Observing Democracies," 527.
4. Dahl, On Democracy, 85.
5. Shapiro, "Introduction."
6. Mill, On Liberty, 156.
7. Ibid., 161.
8. Dahl, On Democracy, 48.
9. Mill, On Liberty, 173.
10. Madison, Federalist Paper 10, 73.
11. Hamilton, Federalist Paper 9, 70-1.
12. Madison, Federalist Paper 10, 72.
13. Hamilton, Federalist Paper 9, 67.
14. Madison, Federalist Paper 10, 78.
15. When writing the Federalist Papers, Madison did not agree with promoting the creation of factions and loyal oppositions in society. This is Dahl's primary critique of Madison's approach to political parties in the Federalists. As Madison aged, however, he became more in line with thinking that political parties were necessary to running a functioning democracy - much more in line with the second quote here from Federalist 10.
16. Shapiro, Democratic Justice, 38.
17. Dahl, On Democracy, 54.
18. Shapiro, Democratic Justice, 37.
19. Dahl, Democratic American Constitution, 41.
20. Shapiro, "Tyranny and Democracy," 487.
21. All of the options discussed in this section are summaries of Dahl's treatments of democracy on different scales. The information is taken from On Democracy, 100-124 and How Democratic is the American Constitution? 43-72.
22. Dahl, 118.
23. "Appendix: Observing Democracies," 527-8.
24. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Translated by George Lawrence, Edited by J.P. Mayer (New York: Harper Perennial, 2006), chapter five.
25. Dahl, On Democracy, 49.
26. Dahl, Democratic American Constitution, 146.